Only specialists in this field are entitled to carry out installation work on the gas pipeline. To provide gas to a private house or to repair gas communications, it is necessary to choose professionals.
Pipe installation is carried out in accordance with the norms of SNiP 2.04.08–87. This document regulates all the actions, distances and sizes of installed communications.
Norms for installing a gas pipeline
The gas pipeline is one of the most important parts of the house. Thanks to him, heating appears in the room, with the help of gas appliances it is possible to cook food and heat water for domestic hot water. But if used improperly, gas can become a serious problem leading to tragedy. In order to avoid this, the norms used in the installation of the gas pipeline were invented. They ensure the safety and correct operation of the devices.
- The intersection of the gas main and window openings, doors and ventilation is not allowed.
- The distance from the pipe to the electrical panel must be at least half a meter.
- There must be a minimum of 25 cm between the gas system and electrical communications.
- The gas pipeline should be at a height of 220 mm from the floor, in rooms with a sloping ceiling, this distance is 200 mm.
- A flexible hose with a diameter of 10 mm can be connected to gas equipment.
- Water heaters cannot be installed in the bathroom.
- High humidity creates a back draft, due to which the room is filled with carbon monoxide and can cause poisoning.
- The distance between the stove and the pipe must be maintained; it must exceed 80 cm.
- After metering devices, a slope of 3% should begin.
- The meter should be located at a height of 1600 mm from the floor.
- The meter should be located at a distance of 80 cm from the heating equipment or stove.
- To install the gas pipeline in the wall, it is necessary to make a hole in the wall separate from the ventilation.
- It is necessary to provide access to communications. You can put them in a box, but it should be equipped with a lid for access.
Before starting the installation of internal gas pipelines, it is necessary to prepare the site. To do this, it is necessary to coordinate work with the appropriate organization. Coordination of the gas pipeline installation is carried out in the following order:
- Write a statement to a company that monitors the gas industry.
- The specialist will issue a verdict on the possibility of carrying out certain works.
- If the work is allowed, then the specialist will make an estimate for their implementation.
Permits for the installation of a gas pipeline are issued in accordance with SNiP 2.04.08–87 and the “Safety Rules in the Gas Industry”. Preparation, coordination and preparation of the project constitute a significant part of the costs.
Used equipment and tools for installation
To install the gas pipeline, the masters use special equipment:
- Long-fiber flax or FUM tape for threaded connections.
- Lever wrenches with parallel jaws. They should be equipped with notches for better adhesion to the part.
- Apparatus for performing welding.
- Fittings - parts with small threads for connecting several elements.
All tools and system elements must have a certificate of the factory manufacturing these parts. All certificates must comply with the requirements of Gosgortekhnadzor. If certificates are not available, then the use of such pipes is not possible.
Installation of the gas pipeline begins with measurements of all necessary sizes. Based on the data received, experts draw up a project for the future gas network.
The next stage can be considered the approval of the project in the organization for supervision of the gas economy at the location of the building.
After approval, it is necessary to order the production of the parts necessary for the project, buy consumables and deliver all this to the assembly location.
When all parts of the structure are ready and delivered to the construction site, you can proceed directly to work. When laying pipes it will not be possible to use gas equipment, so you have to worry in advance about an alternative method of heating or cooking at the time of work.
Gas pipeline installation technique
Work begins with the introduction of a pipe into the building. To do this, a case is placed in the outer wall and input is performed through it. A riser located 20 mm from the walls in an upright position is already fastened inside. Connections at this stage are made using a welding machine.
Cases should be located at all points where the pipe intersects with the floors, walls and stairwells.
Gas pipeline fasteners must be installed at a distance of at least 2 m from each other. These rules apply for pipes with a diameter of 25 mm. They should allow the repair and diagnosis of possible damage during operation. The end of each of the fasteners is hammered into a special wooden cork located in the wall. After this, the attachment site is poured with cement mortar to give additional strength.
There are a number of rules for performing welding operations:
- Welding can be performed on pipes with a diameter not exceeding 150 mm and with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm.
- Arc welding is used when the pipe thickness exceeds 150 mm or the wall thickness is more than 5 mm.
- Before mounting, it is necessary to prepare the pipes for welding. To do this, they are cleaned of contaminants.
- Each weld should be easily accessible. Hiding seams in a wall or case is not allowed.
It is important to note that free access is mandatory for all joints, and not just for welds.
All connections are made by welding. Threaded connections are allowed only in the places where shutoff valves, metering devices (gas meters) are installed, pipe connections with a hose leading directly to gas equipment.
Why gasify housing?
Today, natural gas is the most convenient and, importantly, profitable type of fuel. Sooner or later, every owner of a private home will want to gasify their possessions. Of course, there is an alternative - electricity. However, its cost is too high and heating large areas in winter in this way is very expensive. Plus, you will always depend on weather conditions - any hurricane can provoke a rush of cables and then you will have to stay for some time without food, hot water and heating. But spoiling the gas line is much more difficult.
Natural gas photo
There is, of course, another “grandmother's” way to heat a house - a stove or a fireplace. But ash, coal, firewood, all this will lead to excess dirt. To melt the stove, it will take a lot of time and labor, so this option is best left as an alternative in case of an apocalypse. So, whatever one may say, but blue fuel today occupies a leading position.
What should be the gas pipeline of a private house?
We all know about the explosive properties of gas, so there can be no talk of any initiative on this issue. However, you will have to collect all the necessary documents, make a project, submit applications to the appropriate authorities, etc. So, get ready to visit various services and queues. Consider all the requirements that cannot be violated.
In the photo - the gas supply project of a private house
All materials, from pipes to welding electrodes, must be of high quality and have certificates. The location of all elements of the pipeline is very important. Collapsible joints should only be in open areas. Be sure to provide free access to them. This will allow at any time to assess their condition and, if necessary, carry out repair work. It is forbidden to block pipes and other nodes of the gas network in the walls or the foundation of the building. It is also unacceptable to let the gas pipeline run through platbands, plywood walls, transoms, door, window frames and temporary partitions. True, it is sometimes possible to conduct a gas pipeline through a specially made channel in the wall, but only in special cases and after the approval of the project.
Skews are not allowed, all pipes must pass strictly vertically, horizontal sections have a slope of 0.002-0.005 m towards the instruments. If it is a riser, then in this case a maximum of 2 mm per meter is allowed to skew. They are mainly located in stairwells or in the kitchen, but this is prohibited in bathrooms and living rooms. Cranes also require special attention; they must be installed so that the axis of the plug is parallel to the wall. Do not place the thrust nut on the side of the wall.
Photo of gas pipes of a private house
It is very important to maintain distance. There should be at least 2.2 meters from the bottom of the pipe to the floor, and 10 cm of free space must be left between the upper side of the gas pipe and the ceiling. Also, do not place the pipes close to the walls, as this will complicate visual inspection. If this distance is not specified in the project, then you need to leave a gap, the minimum value of which will be equal to the radius of the pipe, but not exceeding 10 cm. The pipeline should be located on the supports tight enough, gaps are not allowed.
Paperwork and equipment selection
But before you run into installation, you will need to run around to different instances and collect a package of documents. Prepare a passport, title documents for the land and the building on it. You also need to write and submit a statement to the gas service in which you express a desire to gasify the house. After that, get the technical specifications form, it is filled out by the developers. And only then can we start drawing up a project.
In the photo - gasification of a private house
You will need to conclude the following contracts:
- on work and the preparation of technical documentation,
- on gasification and installation of appropriate equipment,
- the act of putting gas equipment into operation,
- for the supply and payment of natural gas.
In some cases, if you do not dare to autonomous gas supply, you have to stretch the pipes through the neighbors, and then you will need written permission from them. It is necessary that specialists come to you and inspect the chimney in the house, in the end they must issue an act. Still have to visit the local architectural and planning office. The head of this organization is also required to issue a permit for the gasification of the site.
It has already been said that absolutely all materials, especially pipes, taps, hoses, must have appropriate certificates. Without the availability of such documentation, it is impossible to commission all of these elements. Blue fuel flows through pipes with a diameter of 150 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm. Basically, elements from mild or low alloy steel are selected. In principle, both seamless and welded structures can be used. Naturally, the gas pipeline is assembled from a sufficiently large number of pipes. They are connected by gas welding. Very serious requirements are also imposed on the quality of the electrodes and they cannot be neglected.
Photo of the gas main of a private house
But the list of necessary materials does not end there, a number of small parts will still be needed - tees, crosses, couplings, adapters, elbows and plugs. They are usually made of cast iron or steel. To fix all the threaded elements well, the correct tool must be selected. For example, keys with notches and parallel sponges provide maximum grip on the part. Is it worth mentioning the boiler, column, stove and other equipment.
There is no need to delay the installation of the meter, as practice shows that it will significantly reduce your costs.
The choice of pipes for the gas pipeline
For laying gas pipelines in an apartment and a private house, the most popular are metal elements. Steel pipes for gas pipelines are resistant to internal pressure, they provide complete tightness, which eliminates gas leaks.
Depending on the pressure in the gas pipe in the apartment, a variety of pipes for laying the gas main is determined. There are gas pipelines with the following conditions:
- low pressure - not more than 0.05 kgf / cm2,
- average pressure - from 0.05 to 3.0 kgf / cm2,
- high pressure - from 3 to 6 kgf / cm2.
Thin-walled metal pipes are used only for gas pipelines in which low pressure is observed. Due to the extreme lightness of the material, thin-walled steel pipes can be involved in laying pipelines with a complex structure. In addition, such a pipe is quite flexible - it is possible to bend steel thin-walled pipes (at a small angle) without a pipe bender. Thin-walled metal pipe is easy to solder. Threaded steel pipes can be interconnected using fittings, and bell-shaped thin-walled products are connected only with a sealant (hemp fiber).
Most often, steel pipes are used to lay a gas pipeline to the house
If it is necessary that the gas pipeline withstands high pressure, more massive pipes should be used. For the construction of structures with increased requirements for strength, steel seamless pipes are used. The best characteristics are cold-deformed steel pipes. But the process of welding seamless products is more problematic than the soldering of lightweight thin-walled pipes. More optimal option in terms of performance than steel thick-walled pipes are copper products. Together with an identical degree of reliability, they have a much lighter weight, but are notable for their high cost.
Helpful advice! A thin-walled steel pipe is characterized by high thermal conductivity, which leads to condensation on the pipe surface. To prevent acceleration of corrosion processes on the walls, after installation, it is necessary to apply several protective layers of oil paint on the pipes.
Plastic pipes are used to lay the pipeline into the ground. Such gas pipes are flexible, ductile and inexpensive. For underground structures, polypropylene and polyethylene products are recommended. They are often used for gasification of private houses. When laying a gas pipeline in the country, polyethylene pipes (low pressure) are purchased. As a rule, they are black with a yellow marking. Pipes made of high pressure polyethylene are never used as gas pipes.
For distributing pipes in the house, the use of hoses made of vulcanized rubber with textile reinforcement is allowed. But they do not withstand high pressure, and are most often used when connecting devices to a balloon gas source or to a geyser system.
Plastic pipes for gas can only be used under certain conditions.
But the use of plastic pipes is prohibited in some cases:
- if the gas pipeline will be laid in areas with atmospheric pressure below 45 degrees,
- in areas with seismic activity above 6 points,
- if the pressure in the gas zone is high,
- when laying a gas pipeline inside any premises, tunnels and collectors.
In all these situations, the HDPE gas pipe will not be able to fully perform its functions. Therefore, in these cases only steel thin-walled or seamless pipelines can be used.
Norms for gas pipes in the apartment
Before you begin to develop a plan for installing a gas pipeline in an apartment or a house, it should be clarified under what circumstances it will be used. For example, in the kitchen, as an indispensable tool for the operation of a gas stove, column, or in a boiler room to provide heat to the house. The gas pipelines in the apartment are subject to special requirements.
The gas supply to the column or stove is subject to some requirements
Compliance with these operating and installation standards for gas pipes in the kitchen guarantees the safety and comfort of using the gas pipeline:
- Installation of gas pipes in living rooms, as well as laying a gas pipeline in ventilation shafts, is not allowed.
- The gas thin-walled pipe should not intersect with window and doorways.
- It is forbidden to lay pipes in hard-to-reach places, for example, behind decorative wall sheathing (with the exception of structures that are easy to dismantle). The gas system should always have quick access in case of breakage.
- The distance of the pipe from the floor should not be less than 2 m.
- The length of flexible communication segments, if a thin-walled pipe is used, cannot exceed 3 m. The density of the connection of network fragments is also important.
- Installation of gas communications is possible in rooms with a ceiling height of at least 2.2 m. The room must be well ventilated.
- Ventilation in the kitchen, if a gas pipeline is laid there, cannot be adjacent to rooms and other living quarters.
- The ceiling and walls near the gas system are coated with a layer of non-flammable plaster. Если стена на кухне не оштукатурена, она изолируется от газовых коммуникаций (в особенности от газовой колонки) листом из металла толщиной от 3мм.
Следует позаботиться о надежном креплении газовых труб — хомутах с резиновой прокладкой
Некоторые правила касаются также установки труб для газовой колонки в квартире. Geysers are mounted with an exhaust pipe - a chimney. A flexible aluminum goof tube cannot be used as a chimney, the installation of the exhaust pipes of the column is carried out only with the help of steel or galvanized products.
Helpful advice! Any heating appliances, including gas stoves, must be equipped with fuses. They are needed so that the gas supply is forcibly shut off when the fire accidentally goes out.
The installation of thin-walled gas pipes in the kitchen also has features:
- Before starting work, make sure that the main gas valve is closed,
- if the gas pipe is transported in the kitchen, the gas pipe is purged. This allows you to get rid of gas residues in the system,
- It is worth taking care of fixing the gas pipe to the wall. Mounting is done using special clamps and brackets. What kind of fastener will be used depends on the diameter of the pipes and their length,
- if there are electric cables near the gas pipes, the distance between these communications should be at least 25 cm. And the distance between the gas system and the electric switchboard should be from 50 cm,
- it is undesirable to place cooling equipment in the kitchen near the planned gas pipeline system: refrigerators, freezers. The presence of a gas pipe behind the refrigerator can cause overheating of its radiator, and, as a result, equipment malfunction,
- It is also not recommended to install thin-walled steel gas pipes too close to heating appliances and directly to the gas stove, behind the wall of the gas column,
- gas pipes in the kitchen cannot be laid on the floor, under sinks, near dishwashers. You can mask the gas pipe with other, safe methods,
- repair work is preferably carried out without the use of artificial lighting, in a constantly ventilated room.
Installation of gas pipes should be subject to certain rules
The specified standards are relevant both for existing gas systems and for gas pipes that are installed or transported only.
Step 1: Design
Having collected all the necessary documentation, you can begin to prepare the project. It indicates absolutely everything: the dimensions of the pipes and their material, the location of various parts, gas appliances. Be sure to specify the types of these devices. The points of attachment of the counters are also indicated. Even at this stage, the calculation of the entire system is carried out. But remember, this is all done by a special organization and only if it has the appropriate license. Otherwise, the document will be invalid and you will have to redo everything, and this is the extra nerve cells, and, of course, material costs.
So be very careful about choosing a similar service. It will be best to contact a company that has the right to engage not only in design, but also in installation work. So you can save about 25%. So, to create a project, you need to provide the organization with a package of the following documents: technical specifications and certificates for the installed equipment. If there is an underground gas pipeline, then you may have to do a topographic survey. They may also ask for executive documentation for the gas pipeline itself.
In the photo - underground gas pipeline of a private house
As a result, the design organization is obliged to come to the facility, study the conditions, take all necessary measurements, make drawings, which indicate all points of gas connection to heating and other appliances. After which there is a coordination of technical documentation in the department of the gas supplying organization and other authorities. In conclusion, you should have a document in your hands confirming that the project is fully compliant.
Laying gas pipes in a private house: basic standards
Gasification of private homes should begin with a notification to the local gas service of upcoming repairs. The relevant organizations are required to provide a technical condition that will determine the procedure for laying the gas pipeline. Upon completion of technical approval, an individual gasification project for the site is developed. An order for permission to lay a gas pipeline should also be issued by representatives of the Automobile Inspectorate (STSI).
If a certain number of houses in the area are already gasified and only the connection of gas pipes in one section to the main system is required, then the service should provide information about the working gas pressure in the mains. From what pressure is maintained in the main pipes, the choice of pipes for gas in the house will depend.
Depending on which gas source was chosen to supply the site, the gas supply system can be autonomous or central. Gas pipelines for private homes are divided into land and underground. The installation and installation of gas communications on the site is quite simple and requires much less time than directly obtaining permission to implement a gasification project.
Gas is supplied to a private house through a pressure reducer
The gas pipeline has the following steps:
- laying a line of gas pipes from the distribution section to the house (if necessary, an insert is made into the gas pipeline),
- pipeline entry into the house through a cabinet with a pressure reducer,
- installation of piping in rooms (boiler room, kitchen),
- commissioning of equipment, commissioning of the system, checking the performance of the gas stove and column (usually this stage is carried out in the presence of technical inspectors).
General requirements for the structure of the gas pipeline in a private house include the same points as the norms for laying gas pipes in the apartment and in the kitchen. The installation work during the gas pipeline to the house must comply with the following rules:
- The depth of the gas pipes in the area is not less than 1.25 m and not more than 1.75-2 m.
- The pipeline entry into the structure has a shallower depth: from 0.75 to 1-1.25 m.
- If it is planned to transport liquefied gas, the gas pipeline should be laid to a depth below the freezing of the soil (the climatic features of the region are taken into account). The input of the pipe into the house is then carried out through the foundation.
- If a gas boiler is installed in a private house, the area of the room per unit of equipment is 7.5 m2. Accordingly, two geysers or boilers require an area of 15 m2.
- Boilers and columns with power up to 60 kW are installed in rooms in which the height from floor to ceiling is at least 2.4 m.
Helpful advice! Before laying gas pipes into the ground, steel structures are insulated with anti-corrosion materials. For this, a flexible polymer-bitumen tape is used. Insulation of the inside of the pipe is not required, since natural gas does not contribute to corrosion.
If you need to install an autonomous gas source in the country or on the site of a private house, you should pay attention to specific safety standards. They will ensure the normal operation of the stove, column and heating system.
Installation of a tank for liquefied gas on the site is carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNiP
The distance from the reservoir with liquefied gas underground to the well should not be less than 15 m. The foundation pit is excavated for capacity at a distance of at least 10 m from the house. Outbuildings can be located no closer than 7-8 meters from the store. The volume of the tank will depend on the number of gas consumption devices (stoves, columns) and the total heating area. Most often, tanks with a volume of 2.7 m3 to 6.4 m3 are used on the farm. Models of tanks with a volume of 6.4 m3 are optimal for supplying gas to large buildings: the total area of the heated premises in the house can be up to 300 m2.
Requirements and recommendations for laying gas pipes underground
Relative to the ground laying of gas pipes, the installation of underground gas pipeline structures has a rather high cost. However, this does not reduce the demand for underground gas pipelines. They are less dangerous, better protected from damage and do not spoil the aesthetic appearance of the site. For the laying of such highways, there are also rules and conditions:
- if the analysis of soil corrosion in the area gave a positive result, it is better not to lay the pipeline underground. But the presence of high-voltage wires near, on the contrary, is a weighty argument in favor of the underground structure, but then the pipes are covered with insulation,
- when laying a polyethylene gas pipeline, products of increased strength (PE-80, PE-100) are used. Flexible pipe PE-80 will be able to safely service systems whose working pressure does not exceed 0.6 MPa. For systems where the pressure is from 0.6 MPa to 1.2 MPa, it is better to use pipes and connecting elements PE-100 or steel pipes. The depth of laying under the ground will be at least 1.0 m,
- it is allowed to use reinforced polyethylene pipes and connection elements between them when laying gas pipelines, the pressure in which will be more than 0.6 MPa. The permissible underground laying depth will also start from 1.0 m,
- on lands intended for arable land, as well as on plentifully irrigated areas, the initial depth of the gas pipeline will be 1.2 m.
Knowing these requirements for high-quality laying of the gas pipeline underground will help to correctly install gas pipes with your own hands, as well as to monitor the actions of workers in order to avoid mistakes that entail negative consequences.
Step 3: Installing the riser
It is impossible to conduct gas in the house without arranging the input. It is a hole above the foundation. A special case is installed in it. A pipe passes through it, one end of which is connected to the riser, and the second is part of the internal gas pipeline. The riser is mounted strictly vertically at a distance of 15 cm from the wall. For a more reliable fixation, you can fix it with hooks. The pipe is led obliquely from the riser.
Step 4: Pipe Laying
Mounting the pipeline in the walls, its elements are passed only through sleeves. Be sure to cover sections of the pipes that will be walled up in the wall with oil paint. Then the free space between the sleeve and the pipe should be filled with tarred tow, and then pour everything with bitumen. The pipeline at the intersection with the walls of the house should be solid, without joints. In general, it is desirable to make as few welded and threaded joints as possible, respectively, the pipes are selected with a maximum length. Monolithic construction is more reliable. In some cases, when it is necessary to make minor manipulations with the pipe, for example, to bend, bend or slightly unfold, heating with a gas burner is allowed.
All nodes are prepared at the bottom, at an altitude, only the assembly and fixture of the prepared elements is carried out. Pipes, the diameter of which does not exceed 40 mm, can be fixed to building structures by means of hooks or clamps. In this case, the fasteners are tightly driven into the surface through wooden corks or poured with cement. If pipes of larger diameter are used, then pendants or brackets are taken to fix them.
In the photo - assembly of gas supply elements
Step 5: Welding
It has already been noticed that parts of the pipeline are connected by welding, and very serious requirements are imposed on this type of work. The seam will not work out of the proper quality if the joint is not prepared in advance. To do this, cut the ends of the pipes, straighten them if necessary, and strip the surface by at least 10 mm on each side. Then connect the connected elements coaxially, maintaining the same gap of not more than 2 mm around the entire circumference.